Journal of Pyrotechnics

 

The Journal of Pyrotechnics

Home

Journal
1995-2007
Issues 1 - 26

Journal
2008 +
Issues 27 +

 

Titles and Abstracts for Issue 19, Summer 2004

To order a copy now at a discounted price for postal delivery.

-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.

Remember that you must "Register and/or Login" before you can order the Electronic Copy.

Metal Monochloride Emitters in Pyrotechnic Flames - Ions or Neutrals?
Barry Sturman 6 Corowa Court, Mount Waverley, Victoria 3149, Australia

Abstract: Twelve English-language books on pyrotechnics were surveyed for the authors' views on the nature of the metal monochlorides that are associated with the emission of colored light in pyrotechnic flames. Three of the ten authors stated that the emitters were metal chloride ions (MCl+), five that they were neutral metal chloride molecules (MCl), and two took no clear position. A study of the references cited in these books establishes that the emitters are neutral monochlorides. The idea that they are MCl+ ions is traced to a book published in 1965, which cited only one reference (published in 1949), and that reference clearly stated that the emitters are neutral molecules.

Keywords: colored flame, emitter, spectra, monochloride, ion, neutral

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 13. The price for this reprint is $6.50.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Experimenting with High Explosive Fuel Explosions for Movies and Television
Stephen Miller Live Action FX Ltd, 152 Ayelands, New Ash Green, Longfield, Kent DA3 8JU UK

Abstract: A number of 'brute force' techniques used within the special effects industry utilise high explosives to create the classic 'Hollywood' style fuel explosion seen in many a movie and television programme. Limited experiments have shown that application of techniques similar to those used in shaped charge anti-tank weapons (the Munroe effect) can produce higher and larger fuel explosion effects, while using less fuel and explosive material, thereby creating a more controlled effect.

Keywords: high explosive, fuel explosion, special effects, directional shaped charge, Munroe effect, compression tube

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 5. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Industrial Scale Nano-Aluminum Powder Manufacturing
David Pesiri, Christopher E. Aumann, Luke Bilger, David Booth, R. Doug Carpenter, Rob Dye, Edward O'Neill, Debbie Shelton, and Kevin C. Walter
Technanogy Materials Development, 2221 Cape Cod Way, Santa Ana, CA 92703 USA

Abstract: Producing nano-aluminum powder (n-Al) on a commercial scale places a great deal of emphasis on practical manufacturing issues. Scientists and engineers in the laboratory commonly evaluate nano-aluminum powder in the technical terms of its particle size, particle size distribution (PSD), morphology and oxide shell thickness. The quality of nano-aluminum at the commercial scale, however, rests upon several additional parameters that emphasize manufacturing effectiveness (production rate, process reproducibility, raw material utilization, lot size and scalability) as well as product quality (powder purity, surface properties and extent of agglomeration). Balancing the practical demands of a commercially viable process with the technical needs of specialized end users has been the challenge throughout the life of Technanogy Materials Development (TMD). Today TMD stands as a company focused on the manufacture and commercialization of nano-aluminum powder and able to assist others in developing nano-aluminum applications. The issues and insights related to the scale-up of this technology during the past three years are described. The properties of nano-aluminum powder that have motivated this scale-up are also discussed.

Keywords: nano-aluminum, nanoparticle, particle size distribution, passivation, oxide layer thickness, nanomaterial

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 13. The price for this reprint is $6.50.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Essential Molecular Orbital Theory for the Study of Pyrotechnics
R. B. Lowry
School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA UK

Abstract: The Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) model is presented as it applies to small heterogeneous molecules. A non-mathematical approach is used to enable the discussion of the terminology used. The production of light and the rules that govern it are examined.

Keywords: linear combination of atomic orbitals, LCAO, energy level, electronic transitions, color, molecular orbital theory

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 5. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (GAT) as a High Performance Hybrid Rocket Fuel Additive
M. Keith Hudson,* Ann M. Wright, Chris Luchini,* Paul C. Wynne,* and Sterling Rooke* *Department of Applied Science and Graduate Institute of Technology University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204, USA Department of Physics, Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032, USA
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to find a high regression rate fuel suitable for use as a mixture with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Guanidinium azo-tetrazolate (GAT) is the compound that was the focus of our research. GAT is a salt containing a high percentage of nitrogen. It has two conjugated nitrogen rings, which are negatively charged, and a positively charged component consisting of nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. In addition to the high-energy content of this compound, as a salt, it has a lower heat of degradation due to the ease of breaking its ionic bonds.

GAT was found to react with N100, a common curative for HTPB. An alternative isocyanate curative was found, polyisocyanate (PAPI), with which it did not react. This polymer matrix was found to be suitable for GAT. The resulting fuel grains were difficult to cast due to the rapid polymerization of the HTPB/PAPI. Once grains were cast, they required no special care in storage or firing.

The fuel grains with the GAT additive were fired for 3-second runs with oxygen flows of 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.12 lbm/s. The regression rate of each GAT concentration was computed and plotted vs. the oxidizer mass flux on a log/log scale. The resultant curve is fit to the equation, , and the quantities a and b were recorded for each curve.

GAT was found to increase the regression rate of HTPB when it was used as an additive. The resultant pressure and thrust from firing even the highest GAT concentrations at high oxygen flows still remained within safe operating parameters of the UALR hybrid rocket motor facility.

Keywords: GAT, guanidinium azo-tetrazolate, GZT, HTPB, hybrid rocket fuel, ground testing, regression rate

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 6. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
A Report on the Fireworks Accident at Carmel, Western Australia
R. I. Grose+ and K. L. Kosanke* + Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, UK * PyroLabs, Inc., 1775 Blair Road, Whitewater, CO 81527, USA

Abstract: The investigation into an accident at Carmel, Western Australia in March 2002 found that the magnitude of explosions occurring in licensed and unlicensed storage areas was significantly greater than would have been expected from the UN hazard classification of items stored within them. Use of revised UN default classification tables for the items in storage, instead of the previous classification, goes towards accounting for the violence of the explosions. The official report into the accident makes a number of recommendations that are of direct international relevance, such as a minimum safety distance of 400 m (from residential housing or defined vulnerable facilities) for licensed UN Hazard Division 1.1 magazines regardless of mass of contents (above 50 kg minimum), removal of a concession that allows for the temporary storage of fireworks in unlicensed areas for up to 14 days prior to a display, the adoption of the UN default classification table throughout Western Australia and the importation of incorrectly classified fireworks to be made an offence.

Keywords: Carmel explosion, UN hazard classification, safety distance, unlicensed storage

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 10. The price for this reprint is $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
Illuminants and Illuminant Research
David R. Dillehay 107 Ashwood Terrace, Marshall, Texas 75672 USA

Abstract: The use of pyrotechnic compositions for the production of light has a long history. Most improvements were made mainly by trial and error with many misunderstandings about the cause and effect relationships from observations. Significant advancements in the mechanisms and theory of combustion have increased the understanding of many effects and led to improved illuminants both theoretically and practically. Radiative transfer theory explained most of the observed variations in illuminant functioning. Effects of spin, liner thickness and binders have been analyzed, and application of the results has been used to improve illuminant performance and solve production problems.

Keywords: illuminant, photoflash, efficiency, magnesium, sodium, nitrate, binder, radiative transfer

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 8. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Bandwidth in Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) Testing
James Stuart Franklin Applied Physics, 98 Highland Avenue, PO Box 313, Oaks, PA, 19456 USA

Abstract: Electro explosive devices (EEDs) are often required to undergo a test in which they are placed near a high-power radio transmitter. The purpose is to see whether electromagnetic energy might fire the EED. Consideration of the "Q" or quality factor of an EED system affords guidance in choosing a transmitter and test procedure. This can lead to shorter, simpler tests, and to improved efficiency in electromagnetic-exposure tests of all kinds.

Keywords: bandwidth, EED, electro explosive device, EMC test, electro-magnetic compatibility test, HERO test, irradiation test, quality factor

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 5. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
A Brief Description of the Construction and Function of Common Electric Matches
Lawrence Weinman Schneier/Weinman Consultants, LLC, Huntsville, AL USA and
K. L. Kosanke
PyroLabs, Inc., Whitewater, CO USA

Abstract: A simple description of the construction and the physical principles governing the function of common electric matches and some implications of these principles for testing and firing them are presented.

Keywords: electric match, heat resistance, current, volt, pyrogen

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 7. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Communications :
  • Comment from Ron Lancaster on "Review of Pyrotechnics" in Issue 18

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  • Review by K. L. Kosanke of Ignition Handbook by Vytenis Babrauskas

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  •    

    Please send comments and suggested corrections to:
    B. Kosanke, Publisher, Journal of Pyrotechnics, Inc.
    1775 Blair Road Whitewater, CO 81527 USA
    Phone/FAX +970-245-0692

    You Can Help Keep Fireworks Legal

    Did you know that efforts are underway in the United States at both State and Federal levels to ban consumer fireworks and rocketry forever? You can help turn the tide by joining the Fireworks Alliance.
    It's free, and we need your voice today!

    Official PayPal Seal

    Journal [1995-2007 / Issues 1-26] - Journal [2008 and beyond / Issues 27 +]
    Reference Series - Literature Series - Training
    Order Area - Search - Sponsor Links - Other Links

    Copyright Journal of Pyrotechnics, Inc. --- 1998 - 2010
    All rights reserved.

       

    Last updated 21-Jan-2009