Journal of Pyrotechnics

 

The Journal of Pyrotechnics

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Titles and Abstracts for Issue 18, Winter 2003

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Color Values and Spectra of the Principal Emitters in Colored Flames
W. Meyerriecks [702 Leisure Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613] and
K. L. Kosanke
[PyroLabs, Inc., 1775 Blair Rd, Whitewater, CO 81527, USA]

Abstract: The emission spectra of many of the more important emitters in pyrotechnic flames were collected. For this purpose solutions and suspensions of sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, barium and copper salts were aspirated into a propane gas flame as the excitation source. Performing instrument corrections and using appropriate data reduction strategies allowed the isolation of the individual spectra. Among these are the monochlorides and monohydroxides of strontium, calcium, barium and copper. The CIE color coordinates of the principal emitters were calculated from the isolated spectra. In addition, a table of normalized band and line intensities was produced for each of the successfully isolated emitting species.

Keywords: flame spectra, flame color, color emitter, color coordinate, monochloride, monohydroxide, barium, calcium, copper, strontium

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Thermal Characterization of Smoke Composition
Z. Abdel-Qader, Q. S. M. Kwok, R. C. Fouchard, P. D. Lightfoot and D. E. G. Jones [Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, 555 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G1 Canada]

ABSTRACT: The present work includes the thermal characterization of a smoke composition, the smoke components, as well as a potassium chlorate–lactose mixture using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-FTIR-MS), and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The DSC results for the smoke composition show a sharp exotherm at 140–210 °C, and the ARC results show one rapid exotherm with an onset temperature of 118 + 5 °C. These exotherms result from the rapid and energetic reaction between lactose and potassium chlorate. Kinetic studies conducted separately in heat-wait-search and isothermal experiments in the ARC yielded substantially different results for the activation energy. Simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR-MS was used to investigate the thermal behavior of the smoke composition and to analyze the evolved gases during the heating process. Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour and carbon monoxide (CO) were detected with a significant intensity using FTIR-MS. Further DSC and TG work was performed for 1-aminoanthraquinone (1-AAQ), a dye that is the main component of the smoke composition. DSC and TG results for the 1-AAQ dye are compared with those for a high purity 1-AAQ dye from a different source. The DSC and TG results indicate that the 1-AAQ dye sample had a significant nonvolatile residual mass compared to the high purity one.

Keywords: smoke composition, orange dye, aminoanthraquinone, thermal analysis, DSC, TG, DTA, FTIR, MS, ARC

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Control Systems for the Storage of Explosives, Including Fireworks
M. J. Bagley [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, SK17 9JN, UK]
Abstract: This paper gives an account of the use of a questionnaire to obtain up-to-date information on control systems for the storage of fireworks and other types of explosives. The study showed that control systems for the storage of explosives based on quantity-distance schemes are used in many countries. In most of these schemes, fireworks are treated in the same way as other types of explosives.

The classification of fireworks is seen to be a particular problem because of the large number of different types that are on the market. There are also concerns about the accurate classification of fireworks stored in steel transport containers or in magazines constructed from brick or concrete. For the storage of mixed fireworks, several countries assign the fireworks to the same hazard division as the most hazardous type of firework in the store.

Keywords: explosives, storage, fireworks, control

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Studies of the Thermal Stability and Sensitiveness of Sulfur/Chlorate Mixtures —
Part 5: Application of Self-Heating Theory to the Prediction of Ignition Temperatures
J. E. Fletcher [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, SK17 9JN, UK]

Abstract: The self-heating models of Frank-Kamenetskii and Thomas have been applied to predict self-ignition temperatures for sulfur-chlorate mixtures in spherical and cylindrical geometries of varying size. The models were validated by comparison to experimental cardboard tube test data previously reported. It was found that the Frank-Kamenetskii model, combined with kinetic data from differential scanning calorimetry, gave the best agreement with the experimental results. However, careful selection of the kinetic parameters proved critical and, in this study, DSC data provided more relevant predictions than ARC data. By appropriate selection of size and geometry, the models could be further applied to predict self-ignition temperatures for other mixtures and geometries or systems that can be related to actual fireworks.

Keywords: sulfur, chlorate, fireworks, thermal stability, self-heating, Frank-Kamenetskii, Thomas

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Assessing the Risks — Suggestions for a Consistent Semi-Quantified Approach
Tom Smith [Davas Limited, 8 Aragon Place, Kimbolton, Huntingdon, Cambs., PE28 0JD, UK]

Abstract: Assessing the risks of an operation, the operation of a whole factory, or the consequences of firing a firework display has become a way of life. Much modern legislation, certainly in the UK, is based less on “prescription” and more on “goal setting”, which requires the risk creator to determine the nature of the risk and to allow him to control it adequately. Everyone involved in almost any activity, be it sport, driving, or managing a pyrotechnic production facility, has always assessed the risks—normally in their head and on the job. Modern legislation demands that these informal processes, accurate as they may have been, be documented, monitored and revised as appropriate, partly at least to “prove” in any post-accident enquiry that adequate steps had been taken to identify the particular circumstances that caused the accident. Failing to identify a particular risk is as negligent as failing to control a risk that had been identified.

Keywords: risk assessment, consequence, hazard management

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Communications :
  • Particle Size Effect in Pyrotechnic Compositions Containing Potassium Chlorate by M. Fathollahi, S. G. Hosseini, S. M. Pourmortazavi, and F. Farahani

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  • Review by B. E. Douda of: Pyrotechnics by A. P. Hardt

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  • Review by S. D. Poehlein and S. K. Wilharm of: Pyrotechnics by A. P. Hardt

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  • Review by B. Sturman of: Pyrotechnics by A. P. Hardt

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  • Review by J. Bergman of: Black Powder Manufacturing, Testing, and Optimizing by Ian von Maltitz

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    Last updated 21-Jan-2009