Journal of Pyrotechnics

 

The Journal of Pyrotechnics

Home

Journal
1995-2007
Issues 1 - 26

Journal
2008 +
Issues 27 +

 

Titles and Abstracts for Issue No. 15, Summer 2002

To order a copy now at a discounted price for postal delivery.

-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.

Remember that you must "Register and/or Login" before you can order the Electronic Copy.

Evaluation of the Hazards Posed by High Energy Bangers
Part 1.  Noise, Overpressure and TNT Equivalence
D. Chapman [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, SK17 9JN, UK]
Abstract: The work reported in this paper was undertaken to determine the hazards posed by certain types of European bangers (firecrackers) that use flash composition. Experiments were done to evaluate the overpressures and noise levels close to such fireworks when they function.

The results indicate that powerful flashbangers could cause hearing damage to those in their immediate vicinity.

The TNT equivalences derived from overpressure for the barium nitrate and potassium perchlorate flashbangers tested were found to be 25 and 57%, respectively.

Keywords: noise, overpressure, TNT equivalence, flash composition, bangers, firecrackers

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 8. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Special Materials in Pyrotechnics
Part 2. Application of Cęsium and Rubidium Compounds in Pyrotechnics
Ernst-Christian Koch [Morlauterer Straße 103a, D-67567 Kaiserslautern, Germany]

Abstract: The application and thermochemical behavior of pyrotechnics based on rubidium and cęsium compounds is reviewed.

Keywords: alkali metal, cęsium, pyrotechnics, rubidium

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 15. The price for this reprint is $7.50.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
An Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics Part 3.  Free Energy and Equilibrium
Barry Sturman [Mount Waverley, Victoria 3149, Australia]

Abstract: This is the third article in a series presenting an introduction to chemical thermodynamics, emphasizing those aspects of particular relevance to pyrotechnics. It shows how the Gibbs free energy varies with temperature and pressure, and how this affects chemical equilibrium. It also shows how a number of useful facts about chemical systems can be predicted from the thermodynamic properties of the reactants and possible products. This is illustrated with examples from pyrotechnics.

Keywords: thermodynamics, free energy, equilibrium constant, thermodynamic modeling

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 18. The price for this reprint is $9.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Studies of Electric Match Sensitiveness
K. L. and B. J. Kosanke [PyroLabs, Inc., Whitewater, CO 81527  USA]
Abstract: The sensitiveness of a collection of 10 electric match types, from four suppliers, was determined under conditions intended to reflect their actual use to ignite fireworks displays. The measurements included determinations of impact, electrostatic discharge (ESD), friction, and thermal sensitiveness. The ESD tests considered discharges both through the bridgewire and from the bridgewire through the composition to ground. When safety shrouds were provided by the manufacturer, additional impact and ESD (through the composition) testing was performed with the safety shrouds left in place on the electric match tips. (Note that users often remove the protective shrouds for convenience during use.) To simulate conditions during use, additional impact and friction testing was performed with Black Powder prime composition in the presence of match tips.

It was found that there was a wide range of electric match sensitiveness, that the presence of the shrouds provided significant decreases in sensitiveness, and the presence of Black Powder prime did not significantly affect sensitiveness.

Keywords: electric match, e-match, impact sensitiveness, friction sensitiveness, thermal sensitiveness, electrostatic discharge sensitiveness, ESD, sensitiveness testing

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 21. The price for this reprint is $10.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Multi-Wavelength Laser Opacity Study of a Hybrid Rocket Plume
A. P. Chouinard, A. J. Adams, A. M. Wright, and M. K. Hudson
[Departments of Applied Science and Physics, and the Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 US]
Abstract: An instrumentation system was developed to measure the opacity of a hybrid rocket plume as a function of optical wavelength. The source consisted of collineated beams from two lasers, providing seven wavelengths in a single probe beam. Detection was accomplished with a spectrograph equipped with a photodiode array.

Previous work with a two-wavelength system demonstrated the ability to follow the changes in opacity level of a hybrid rocket plume during the various stages of a typical firing cycle. The present work was to investigate the feasibility of using a multiple wavelength system to acquire more detailed information about the particulates present in the hybrid rocket plume.

Qualitative analysis of the plume particulates was done by comparison of the relative extinction coefficients of the laser wavelengths with published extinction coefficient curves from Mie scattering theory. While it was found that light level fluctuations in the system prevent definitive conclusions, the data suggests that the particulate matter in the plume may consist of some optically transparent material. This is in contrast to the absorbing, soot-like material that might be expected in a hybrid rocket plume.

Keywords: combustion diagnostics, rocket ground testing, particle analysis, opacity, aerosol, hybrid rocket

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 8. The price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00.
This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.
-- Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.
Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can order the Copy.
 
Communications :
  • A Note on the Design of Experiments   by L. Weinman

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  • Air Pollutant Emissions from Power Plants  by Martha Joseph, Cynthia Johnston, and Candice Smith

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  • Reprint of: Chapter III — Accroides

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  • Review by Tom Smith of The Chemistry and Characteristics of Explosive Materials by James R. Cook, PhD

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  • Review by Linda Pierpont of Head and Eye Protection: A Guide for Those Who Manufacture, Test, or Use Explosives by Confederation of British Industry

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  • Review by Monona Rossol of Protection against Substances Hazardous to Health by Confederation of British Industry

    Remember that you must Register and/or Login before you can download this free article.
  •    

    Please send comments and suggested corrections to:
    B. Kosanke, Publisher, Journal of Pyrotechnics, Inc.
    1775 Blair Road Whitewater, CO 81527 USA
    Phone/FAX +970-245-0692

    You Can Help Keep Fireworks Legal

    Did you know that efforts are underway in the United States at both State and Federal levels to ban consumer fireworks and rocketry forever? You can help turn the tide by joining the Fireworks Alliance.
    It's free, and we need your voice today!

    Official PayPal Seal

    Journal [1995-2007 / Issues 1-26] - Journal [2008 and beyond / Issues 27 +]
    Reference Series - Literature Series - Training
    Order Area - Search - Sponsor Links - Other Links

    Copyright Journal of Pyrotechnics, Inc. --- 1998 - 2010
    All rights reserved.

       

    Last updated 22-Jan-2009