Titles and Abstracts for Issue No. 15, Summer 2002
of the Hazards Posed by High Energy Bangers
Part 1. Noise, Overpressure and TNT Equivalence
||D. Chapman [Health
and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, SK17 9JN,
||Abstract: The work reported in
this paper was undertaken to determine the hazards posed by certain
types of European bangers (firecrackers) that use flash composition.
Experiments were done to evaluate the overpressures and noise levels
close to such fireworks when they function.
The results indicate that powerful flashbangers could cause hearing
damage to those in their immediate vicinity.
The TNT equivalences derived from overpressure for the barium nitrate
and potassium perchlorate flashbangers tested were found to be 25
and 57%, respectively.
Keywords: noise, overpressure,
TNT equivalence, flash composition, bangers, firecrackers
Materials in Pyrotechnics
Part 2. Application of Cęsium and Rubidium Compounds in Pyrotechnics
||Ernst-Christian Koch [Morlauterer
Straße 103a, D-67567 Kaiserslautern, Germany]
Abstract: The application and
thermochemical behavior of pyrotechnics based on rubidium and cęsium
compounds is reviewed.
Keywords: alkali metal, cęsium,
Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics Part 3. Free Energy
||Barry Sturman [Mount
Waverley, Victoria 3149, Australia]
Abstract: This is the third
article in a series presenting an introduction to chemical thermodynamics,
emphasizing those aspects of particular relevance to pyrotechnics.
It shows how the Gibbs free energy varies with temperature and pressure,
and how this affects chemical equilibrium. It also shows how a number
of useful facts about chemical systems can be predicted from the
thermodynamic properties of the reactants and possible products.
This is illustrated with examples from pyrotechnics.
Keywords: thermodynamics, free
energy, equilibrium constant, thermodynamic modeling
of Electric Match Sensitiveness
||K. L. and B. J. Kosanke
[PyroLabs, Inc., Whitewater, CO 81527
||Abstract: The sensitiveness of
a collection of 10 electric match types, from four suppliers, was
determined under conditions intended to reflect their actual use to
ignite fireworks displays. The measurements included determinations
of impact, electrostatic discharge (ESD), friction, and thermal sensitiveness.
The ESD tests considered discharges both through the bridgewire and
from the bridgewire through the composition to ground. When safety
shrouds were provided by the manufacturer, additional impact and ESD
(through the composition) testing was performed with the safety shrouds
left in place on the electric match tips. (Note that users often remove
the protective shrouds for convenience during use.) To simulate conditions
during use, additional impact and friction testing was performed with
Black Powder prime composition in the presence of match tips.
It was found that there was a wide range of electric match sensitiveness,
that the presence of the shrouds provided significant decreases
in sensitiveness, and the presence of Black Powder prime did not
significantly affect sensitiveness.
Keywords: electric match, e-match,
impact sensitiveness, friction sensitiveness, thermal sensitiveness,
electrostatic discharge sensitiveness, ESD, sensitiveness testing
Laser Opacity Study of a Hybrid Rocket Plume
||A. P. Chouinard, A. J. Adams, A. M. Wright,
and M. K. Hudson
[Departments of Applied Science and Physics, and the Graduate Institute
of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock,
AR 72204 US]
||Abstract: An instrumentation system
was developed to measure the opacity of a hybrid rocket plume as a
function of optical wavelength. The source consisted of collineated
beams from two lasers, providing seven wavelengths in a single probe
beam. Detection was accomplished with a spectrograph equipped with
a photodiode array.
Previous work with a two-wavelength system demonstrated the ability
to follow the changes in opacity level of a hybrid rocket plume
during the various stages of a typical firing cycle. The present
work was to investigate the feasibility of using a multiple wavelength
system to acquire more detailed information about the particulates
present in the hybrid rocket plume.
Qualitative analysis of
the plume particulates was done by comparison of the relative extinction
coefficients of the laser wavelengths with published extinction
coefficient curves from Mie scattering theory. While it was found
that light level fluctuations in the system prevent definitive conclusions,
the data suggests that the particulate matter in the plume may consist
of some optically transparent material. This is in contrast to the
absorbing, soot-like material that might be expected in a hybrid
Keywords: combustion diagnostics,
rocket ground testing, particle analysis, opacity, aerosol, hybrid
|| A Note on the Design of Experiments by L. Weinman
Air Pollutant Emissions from Power Plants by Martha Joseph, Cynthia Johnston, and Candice Smith
Reprint of: Chapter III Accroides
Review by Tom Smith of The Chemistry and Characteristics of Explosive Materials by James R.
Review by Linda Pierpont of Head
and Eye Protection: A Guide for Those Who Manufacture, Test, or Use
Explosives by Confederation of British
Review by Monona Rossol of Protection against Substances Hazardous to
Health by Confederation of British
Please send comments and suggested corrections to:
Publisher, Journal of Pyrotechnics, Inc.
1775 Blair Road Whitewater, CO 81527 USA
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