State-of-the-art research on fireworks and pyrotechnics

Titles and Abstracts (1 to 10 / 1995 to 1999)

Titles and Abstracts for Issues 1 to 10, Summer 1995 to Winter 1999

Observations on the Heights Attained by Spherical Fireworks Shells

R. K. Wharton [Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK]

Abstract: This paper examines previously published information on the heights attained by spherical firework shells and proposes some empirical relationships that enable rough estimates to be made of the height attained from knowledge of either the mass or the diameter of the shell.

Keywords: fireworks shell burst diameter, fireworks shell burst height, fireworks shell mass, lift powder mass

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 5. Price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00. This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.

 

Observations on the Behaviour of Seamed Steel Mortar Tubes

S. G. Myatt [Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton, Derbyshire, UK]

Abstract: This paper reports results taken from a wider investigation of the effect of various parameters on the fragmentation behaviour of steel firework mortar tubes. During simulated misfire experimental information was obtained relating to the role of the weld in determining rupture behaviour in seamed steel mortar tubes. The results have helped to resolve different opinions on the hazard posed by fragmentation of welded and seamless mortar tubes.

Keywords: mortar placement, seamed, mortar placement, steel

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 5. Price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00. This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.




 — Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.

An Introduction to PROPEP, A Propellant Evaluation Program for Personal Computers

E. D. Brown [Estes Industries, Rockvale, CO, USA]

Abstract: Propellant evaluation programs are used to estimate the performance of rocket propellants, to compare the performance of different propellants, and to evaluate the effects of formulation changes. While the program output may not be exact, it compares well with experimental results. Their major weakness lies in the accuracy and completeness of the underlying thermochemical database used for calculations. These programs are potentially useful for the evaluation of non-rocket chemical equilibrium. This article provides a guide to installing, testing and using PROPEP, a propellant evaluation program available in the public domain. Some basic knowledge of computer terminology, chemistry, etc. is required.

Keywords: chemical equilibrium, PROPEP, rocket motor propellant evaluation, rocket propellant evaluation, thermodynamics

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 8. Price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00. This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.  

 

 — Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.

Introductory Chemistry for Pyrotechnists Part 1: Atoms, Molecules, and Their Interactions

W.D. Smith [Ricks College, Rexburg, ID, USA]

Abstract: This is the first in a series of tutorials that introduce the concepts of chemistry to practicing pyrotechnists. It begins with the fundamental ideas of atoms and molecules. The reactions of these entities, together with their symbols, their nomenclature, their stoichiometry, and their energetics, are then described with pyrotechnic examples.

Keywords: activation energy, chemical energetics, chemical equations, chemical formula, chemical nomenclature, enthalpy of reaction, stoichiometry

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 7. Price for this reprint is the minimum charge of $5.00. This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.  

 

 — Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.

Pressure, Recoil and Overpressure as Functions of Powder Mass

K.L. & B.J. Kosanke [PyroLabs, Whitewater, CO, USA] and
T. DeWille [Luna Tech, Owens Cross Roads, AL, USA]

Abstract: A concussion mortar can be defined as a device used to produce a noise and jarring shock for dramatic effect at events such as stage productions. It consists of a thick-walled tube, closed at one end to form a combustion chamber (barrel). A type of pyrotechnic flash powder is loaded into the combustion chamber and fired with an electric match. Although concussion mortars are used quite frequently, for the most part, detailed measurements of their manner of functioning have not been reported in the literature. In the present study, internal mortar pressure, recoil force and overpressure (air blast) were measured as functions of concussion powder load. It was determined that a full load (1.0 ounce or 28 g) of a strontium nitrate and magnesium concussion powder produced peak internal pressures averaging approximately 3100 psi (21 MPa). It was also observed that the width of the pressure peak ranged from approximately 7 ms for light loads, down to less than 2 ms for heavy loads. The recoil produced for a full load averaged approximately 5.9 lbf·s (26 N·s). The peak overpressure for a full load, at a point 5 feet from and 3 feet above the mortar (1.52 m and 0.91 m, respectively), averaged approximately 1.5 psi (10 kPa). In addition, there were a number of unexpected observations, which have not been fully explained at the time of this writing.

Keywords: air blast, blast pressure, concussion mortar, concussion mortar internal pressure, concussion-mortar recoil force, concussion powder, flash powder, overpressure, sound pressure, sound pressure, concussion mortar

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 11. Price for this reprint is $5.50.

 

This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.  

 — Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.

Prediction of Flame Temperatures, Part 1: Low Temperature Reactions

D.P. Dolata a.k.a. Tom Perigrin [Clippinger Laboratories, Athens, OH, USA]

Abstract: A method based on heat of reaction and heat capacity at constant pressure (DeltaHr and CP) was devised for the prediction of flame temperatures for simple “low temperature” pyrotechnic reactions containing either potassium chlorate, potassium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, or ammonium perchlorate (KClO3, KClO4, KNO3, or NH4ClO4) as the oxidant, and a mixture of shellac and sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) as fuels. The method has an average error of ±41° for 15 reactions covering a 700° temperature range around 2200 K, with essentially no systematic error. Good predictions were obtained on calculations based on the published decomposition schemes of KClO3, KClO4, and KNO3, but the prediction of the flame temperatures of NH4ClO4 mixtures required a different decomposition scheme than those published in the pyrotechnic literature.

Keywords: enthalpy of reaction, flame temperature, heat capacity, heat of reaction, thermodynamics

Reprint Information: Number of pages = 10. Price for this reprint is $5.00.

 This is not an automated system, the reprint will usually be emailed within a day.  

 — Pay with PayPal or credit card through PayPal.


Leave a Reply